But how did these powerful communities come to exist in the first place? Cacioppo proposes that the root of social ties lies in their opposite — loneliness. According to his theory, the pain of being alone motivates us to seek the safety of companionship, which in turn benefits theContinue Reading

If there’s one thing to learn from the tuskless elephants of Mozambique, it’s that evolution can move at warp speed — The New York Times (@nytimes) September 21, 2018 An increasing number of African elephants are now born tuskless because poachers have consistently targetted animals with the best ivoryContinue Reading By 1973 John Maynard Smith and George Price introduced game theory to evolutionary problems. While classic game theory sees players making rational choices on the basis of individual gain, evolutionary game theory posits awareness of what others might do and development of strategies to counter that decision. It isContinue Reading The benefits of social life typically occur when one individual is the benefactor of an act of altruism. An altruistic act is one that increases the welfare of another individual at an actual or potential cost of the individual who performs the act. An example of altruism comes fromContinue Reading