Poor Science Education and The Dualist Fallacy


Much superstitious thinking begins with the premise that there is a mental/spiritual realm that is separate from the physical world accessed by our senses. In natural sciences, there is only a material world.

The dualist fallacy emerges in virtually every religion and many branches of pseudoscience from astrology to reflexology.

It is present in the earliest religions, including shamanism, that imagines spirits controlling material events such as the movements of game animals. Shamans engage in elaborate rituals, or consume hallucinogenic drugs, that open up a spirit world where they can negotiate with the spirits and arrange for successful hunting.

Shamanic healing also involves negotiating with, or subduing demons who are considered the fundamental cause of serious illnesses.