Talking about female perpetrators does not negate concern[s] about other abuse.

Although acknowledging that “a focus on female perpetration might be sceptically viewed as an attempt to upend a women’s rights agenda focused on male perpetration”, it adds: “Attention to female perpetration need not negate concern[s] about other forms of abuse.”

The report found that women and men reported a nearly equal prevalence of non consensual sex.

It also found that “among men reporting … forms of sexual victimisation (other than a narrow definition of rape), 68.6% reported female perpetrators. Specifically, being ‘made to penetrate’ — the form of non consensual sex that men are much more likely to experience in their lifetimes — is frequently perpetrated by women: 79% of victimised men reported female perpetrators.”

According to the report, factors that led to “the persistent minimising of male victimisation” included outdated definitions of sexual victimisation and a reliance on gender stereotypes.

Rees Mann, of South African Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse, says: “Generally it is thought that males always want sex and that, when it comes to any kind of sexual activity, males are more dominant and females submissive. So these encounters are actually going contrary to what is generally believed to define masculinity.”