— NNEDV (@nnedv) November 4, 2014
12% of HIV/AIDS infection among women in romantic relationships are due to intimate partner violence. (Sareen J., Pagura, B., Grant, B., Is Intimate Partner Violence Associated With HIV Infection Among Women in the U.S. published in Science Direct www.sciencedirect.com February 2009)
Women who experienced intimate partner violence were over 3 times more likely to have a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. (Sareen J., Pagura, B., Grant, B., Is Intimate Partner Violence Associated With HIV Infection Among Women in the U.S. published in Science Direct www.sciencedirect.com February 2009)
Women are more biologically vulnerable to contracting HIV/AIDS through heterosexual intercourse due to having a larger surface area of mucous membrane exposed during sex. (Cambell, J., Baty, M., Ghandour, R., Stockman, J., Francisco, L., Wagmen, J., The intersection of intimate partner violence against women and HIV/AIDS: a review. Int J Inj Control Saf Promot 2008;23(12); 1694-712.)
Men who rape or are physically violent with partners are shown to have more sexual partners and more frequent intercourse (therefore are more at-risk of HIV/AIDS exposure). (Dunkle, K., Jewkes, R., Nduna, et al Connections between perpetration of partner violence and HIV risk behavior among young men in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. AIDS (in press) and Abrahams, N., Jewkes, R., Hoffman, M., Laubascher, R., Sexual violence against intimate partners in Cape Town: prevalence and risk factors reported by men. Bull World Health Organ 2004;82:330-37.
Safer sex practices are usually controlled by the batterer (negotiation is risky). (Garcia-Moreno C., Violence against women : its importance for HIV/AIDS. AIDS 2000; 14(suppl 3):5253-65) and (Jewkes R., Levin j., Penn-Kenana L., Gender inequalities, intimate partner violence and HIV preventative practices. Soc Sci Med 2003;56:125-34
HIV/AIDS infection might be elevated due to a compromised immune systems due to cumulative stress, depression, trauma, PTSD ( Leserman, J., Role of Depression , Stress and Trauma in HIV disease progression, Psychosom Med 2008; 70(5):539-45)
Risk factors among victims of intimate partner violence reveal an increased likelihood of a higher number of sexual partners (including forces partners). (Jewkes, R., Dunkle. K., Nduna, M., Jama, N., Khuzwayo, N., Koss, M., Puren, A., Duvvury, N., Factors associated with HIV sero-status in young rural South African women: connections between intimate partner violence and HIV, 2006)